The Language of Shakespeare
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Shakespeare's Grammar | Speech Analysis: Selected Readings
The most striking feature of Shakespeare is his command of language. It is all the more astounding when one not only considers
Shakespeare's sparse formal education but the curriculum of the day. There were no dictionaries; the first such lexical work for
speakers of English was compiled by schoolmaster Robert Cawdrey as A Table Alphabeticall in 1604. Although certain grammatical
treatises were published in Shakespeare's day, organized grammar texts would not appear until the 1700s. Shakespeare as a youth would
have no more systematically studied his own language than any educated man of the period.
Despite this, Shakespeare is credited by the Oxford English Dictionary with the introduction of nearly 3,000 words into the
language. His vocabulary, as culled from his works, numbers upward of 17,000 words (quadruple that of an average, well-educated
conversationalist in the language). In the words of Louis Marder, "Shakespeare was so facile in employing words that he was able
to use over 7,000 of themmore than occur in the whole King James version of the Bibleonly once and never again."
Shakespeare's English, in spite of the calamitous cries of high school students everywhere, is only one linguistic generation
removed from that which we speak today. Although the Elizabethan dialect differs slightly from Modern English, the principles are
generally the same. There are some (present day) anomalies with prepositional usage and verb agreement, and certainly a number of
Shakespeare's words have shifted meanings or dropped, with age, from the present vocabulary. Word order, as the language shifted from
Middle to Early Modern English, was still a bit more flexible, and Shakespeare wrote dramatic poetry, not standard prose, which gave
some greater license in expression. However, Elizabethan remains a sibling of our own tongue, and hence, accessible.
This facility with language, and the art with which he employed its usage, is why Shakespeare is as relevant today as he was in his
- A Quick Guide to Reading Shakespeare
- Shakespeare's works are remarkably accessible once you know what to expect when reading them. This quick guide can help you make a little more sense of what his characters are saying.
- CliffsNotesShakespeare Glossary
- A glossary of Shakespearean terms from the people who have made a living out of students who don't want to read the plays for themselves.
- Dictionary of Shakespeare
- A selective dictionary of Shakepearean words that have fallen out of use, or whose meanings have changed over the centuries.
- Elizabethan English
- Topics include sounds and sentences, puns and word-play, Shakespeare's pronunciation, and prose and verse.
- Elizabethan English as a literary medium
- From Bartleby.com. A look at the literary use of Elizabethan English.
- History of the English Language
- A (very) brief history of the English language from EnglishClub.com.
- In Search of Shakespeare: Shakespeare's Language
- Online case studies and lesson plans supplementing the PBS series.
- Proper Elizabethan Accents
- A brief introduction to how people's speech in Elizabethan England actually sounded, their vocabulary, and grammar. Includes a table for constructing Shakespearean insults.
- Reading Shakespeare's Language
- The New Folger Library Shakespeare presents some overview resources to help guide students in reading Shakespeare.
- Shakespeare 101
- Amy Ulen has a guide meant to help Shakespeare newbies with the language of the Bard. Includes a mini-glossary.
- Shakespeare and the Development Of Modern English
- This article from No Sweat Shakespeare discusses the shift from Middle to Early Modern English.
- Shakespeare Concordance
- Type in a word, and this search engine will find all the instances of that word in Shakespeare's works.
- A Shakespeare Glossary
- The Perseus Digital Library presents this classic reference work by C.T. Onions in a searchable database.
- Shakespeare Lexicon
- Alexander Schmidt's Lexicon and Quotation Dictionary is a painstakingly compiled glossary of every word in
the Shakespeare corpus and an exhaustive collection of quotations. It has long been a standard reference work.
- Shakespeare's Words
- Shakespeare's Words is the companion website to the book by David and Ben Crystal. It includes a glossary and fully searchable texts of the plays and poems.
- A Shakespearian Grammar
- A great Internet edition of a classic work by Edwin Abbott, a Headmaster of the City of London School. Although first published in 1879, this is still a very good (if highly academic) comparative study of Elizabethan syntax versus Modern English.
- Shakespeare Made Easy
- Vook.com presents an iPad app that incorporates video with text to better teach and learn about Shakespeare
and his works.